||With the aim of better understanding the impact of climate change on our water resources and to guide water management decisions, we propose the reconstruction of climatic changes and their impact on lakes over the past millennium in the Tyva Republic, situated in the geographical centre of Asia, the region with the highest degree of continentality on the Earth. The study will include geochemical and biological analyses of well-dated sediment cores taken from a freshwater lake and a moderately saline lake in the Sayan Mountains. The reconstructions from a freshwater lake will provide evidence for past temperature changes whereas the reconstructions from a moderately saline lake will allow tracing past changes in lake salinity associated with climate variability in the region over the past millennium. Special attention will be placed on matching the changes in lake salinity to cold and warm events in the past. An important mission relying on the proposed project is to provide the knowledge concerning the magnitude and rate of climate changes and climate-related changes of freshwater ecosystems during the last millennium. The results will be important for administration and freshwater management and promote sustainable development of the region.